Addresses the wild west of space applications, often called NewSpace, Entrepreneurial space, or Commercial Space. It is the emergent private spaceﬂight industry, with a special emphasis on microwave hardware. There has been a renaissance of interest and investment in space- and suborbital-based high-data-rate communications networks and other application. Since the signal transit times are small enough, many more applications are feasible: the creation of a world wide car-to-car communications network or global sensor & control systems for autonomous vehicles. The Internet of Space (IoS) is ahead of the innovation curve; it is at a very early stage, so focused discussions can make great progress.